Saturday, June 18, 2011

Conditional Sentences এর ব্যবহার [Use of conditional Sentence]

Conditional Sentences 
If I have time, I will go. I would help you, if I were a king এখানে লক্ষণীয় প্রতিটি বাক্যেই একটি করে শর্ত বা condition   প্রকাশ পাচ্ছে। আর এমনি ভাবে কোন বাক্যকে কোন শর্ত বা condition প্রকাশ পেলে তাকে conditional Sentence বলে। 
N.B. Conditional Sentence এ ২ টি অংশ থাকে ‘If’দিয়ে যুক্ত অংশ কে .If clause বলে এবং অপর অংশ কে Main clause বলে। If clause টি বাক্যের শুরুতেও হতে পারে আবার শেষেও হতে পারে। উপরের Example লক্ষ্য কর
Conditional sentence ২ প্রকার:-
  1. The real conditional (Factual and Habitual)
  2. The unreal conditional(Contrary to fact or hypothetical)
The real conditional (Possibly true)
এই রূপ Conditional  Sentence. If clause  এ যে কাজটির কথা উল্লেখ থাকে তা ঘটা পুরপুরি সম্ভব।
এবং এ ধরনের Conditional SentenceFuture time habitual fact এবং  Command সূচক কাজের উল্লেখ থাকে।  
Structure (Future time)
If+ Simple Present tense + Subject + Shall/Will/Can/May/Must + Verb in simple form
§  If I have money, will buy a new car.
§  If it stops raining, you can go outside.
§  You must get A+, if you study hard.
§  You may be happy, if you have much money.
Structure (Habitual fact)
  If+ Subject+ Simple present tense+ Simple present
§ John usually walks to school if he has enough time.
§ If man drinks poison, he dies.
§ Demand decreases, if prices are high.
Structure (Command)
If + subject+ simple present tense + command form
*If you go to the post office, mail this letter for me.
*Call me if you hear from Jane.
Unreal Conditions (Not True)
এ ধরনের Conditional sentence, past, present অথবা Future -এর এমন কোন কাজ কে বুঝায় যা ঘটার কথা ছিল কিন্তু ঘটেনি এবং সম্ভবও নয়।
Structure (present or future time)
If +Simple past tense+ subject+ would/could/might+ verb in simple form
*If I had time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend.
*He might tell you about it, if he were here.
*If he didn’t speak so quickly, you could understand him.
Structure (past time)
If + past perfect + could have/would have/might have + verb in past participle
*If I had worked hard in my youth, I would not have suffered.
*We could have written you a letter, if we had known that you were here.
*She might have sold the house if she had found the right buyer.
Note: Past unreal conditional sentence কে if ছাড়াও প্রকাশ করা যায়।  সেক্ষেত্রে Auxiliary ‘had’ কে subject এর পূর্বে লিখতে হয় ।
*Structure: Had + subject + verb in past participle.
·         Had we known, that you were there, we could have written you a letter.
·         Had she found the right buyer, she might have sold the house.
Other conditional expression
Unless + affirmative verb, is similar to If+ negative verb. Example:
·         Unless I hurry, I’ll miss my bus.
(If I don’t hurry, I’ll miss my buss.)

In case and if এর ব্যবহার
In case অর্থ পাছে যদি অর্থাৎ in case দ্বারা কোন বাক্যকে শর্তহীনতা বুঝায়।
*I’ll give you the book, in case you need it. অর্থাৎ আমি  তোমাকে বইটি দেব তুমি চাও বা না চাও।
*If অর্থ যদি, ইহা বাক্যে ব্যবহৃত হয়ে কোন শর্ত প্রকাশ করে।
*I’ll give you the book, if you need it.
Meaning and use of ‘As’
*Asএর Relative pronoun হিসাবে ব্যবহারঃ  
Such + Noun + as:
Inc: He needs such a boy who will be honest.
Cor: I’ll buy the same shirt as you bought.
So + adjective+ as:
Inc: She is not so beautiful like her sister.
Cor: She is not so beautiful as her sister.
Ø      ‘As’ যখনAlthough এর অর্থ দেয় তখন নিম্নোক্ত structure অনুসরণ করতে হয়ঃ
Adjective + as + subject:
Inc: As he is wise, he will not understand it.
Cor: wise as he is, he will not understand it.