নির্বাচিত সংবাদ!

মঙ্গলবার, ১৫ সেপ্টেম্বর, ২০১৫

GMAT Critical Reasoning for Bank Recruitment Test

1) To prevent some conflicts of interest, Congress could prohibit high-level government officials from accepting positions as lobbyists for three years after such officials leave government service. One such official concluded, however, that such a prohibition would be unfortunate because it would prevent high-level government officials from earning a livelihood for three years. (GMAT Critical 
The official's conclusion logically depends on which of the following assumptions?

A.Laws should not restrict the behavior of former government officials.

B.Lobbyists are typically people who have previously been high-level government officials.

C.Low-level government officials do not often become lobbyists when they leave government service.

D.High-level government officials who leave government service are capable of earning a livelihood only as lobbyists.

E.High-level government officials who leave government service are currently permitted to act as lobbyists for only three years.

Answer : D







2) A conservation group in the United States is trying to change the long-standing image of bats as frightening creatures. The group contends that bats are feared and persecuted solely because they are shy animals that are active only at night.

Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the accuracy of the group's contention?

A.Bats are steadily losing natural roosting places such as caves and hollow trees and are thus turning to more developed areas for roosting.(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

B.Bats are the chief consumers of nocturnal insects and thus can help make their hunting territory more pleasant for humans.

C.Bats are regarded as frightening creatures not only in the United States but also in Europe, Africa, and South America.

D.Raccoons and owls are shy and active only at night; yet they are not generally feared and persecuted.

E.People know more about the behavior of other greatly feared animal species, such as lions, alligators, and snakes, than they do about the behavior of bats.

Answer : D




3) Meteorite explosions in the Earth's atmosphere as large as the one that destroyed forests in Siberia, with approximately the force of a twelve-megaton nuclear blast, occur about once a century. 

The response of highly automated systems controlled by complex computer programs to unexpected circumstances is unpredictable.

Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn, if the statements above are true, about a highly automated nuclear-missile defense system controlled by a complex computer program?

A.Within a century after its construction, the system would react inappropriately and might accidentally start a nuclear war.(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

B.The system would be destroyed if an explosion of a large meteorite occurred in the Earth's atmosphere.

C.It would be impossible for the system to distinguish the explosion of a large meteorite from the explosion of a nuclear weapon.

D.Whether the system would respond inappropriately to the explosion of a large meteorite would depend on the location of the blast.

E.It is not certain what the system's response to the explosion of a large meteorite would be, if its designers did not plan for such a contingency.

Answer : E




4) Defense Department analysts worry that the ability of the United States to wage a prolonged war would be seriously endangered if the machine-tool manufacturing base shrinks further. Before the Defense Department publicly connected this security issue with the import quota issue, however, the machine-tool industry raised the national security issue in its petition for import quotas.

Which of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the machine-tool industry's raising the issue above regarding national security?(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

A.When the aircraft industries retooled, they provided a large amount of work for tool builders.

B.The Defense Department is only marginally concerned with the effects of foreign competition on the machine-tool industry.

C.The machine-tool industry encountered difficulty in obtaining governmental protection against imports on grounds other than defense.

D.A few weapons important for defense consist of parts that do not require extensive machining.

E.Several federal government programs have been designed which will enable domestic machine-tool manufacturing firms to compete successfully with foreign toolmakers.

Answer : C




Questions 5-6 are based on the following.

The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.(GMAT Critical Reasoning)




5) If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

A.Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee arrangements in the advertisements.

B.More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal services.

C.If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services.

D.If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services.

E.If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, most lawyers would advertise their services

Answer : C




6) Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument concerning overall consumer legal costs?(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

A.The state has recently removed some other restrictions that had limited the advertising of legal services.

B.The state is unlikely to remove all of the restrictions that apply solely to the advertising of legal services.

C.Lawyers who do not advertise generally provide legal services of the same quality as those provided by lawyers who do advertise.

D.Most lawyers who now specify fee arrangements in their advertisements would continue to do so even if the specificationwere not required.

E.Most lawyers who advertise specific services do not lower their fees for those services when they begin to advertise.

Answer : E




7) Opponents of laws that require automobile drivers and passengers to wear seat belts argue that in a free society people have the right to take risks as long as the people do not harm others as a result of taking the risks. As a result, they conclude that it should be each person's decision whether or not to wear a seat belt.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion drawn above?(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

A.Many new cars are built with seat belts that automatically fasten when someone sits in the front seat.

B.Automobile insurance rates for all automobile owners are higher because of the need to pay for the increased injuries or deaths of people not wearing seat belts.

C.Passengers in airplanes are required to wear seat belts during takeoffs and landings.

D.The rate of automobile fatalities in states that do not have mandatory seat-belt laws is greater than the rate of fatalities in states that do have such laws.

E.In automobile accidents, a greater number of passengers who do not wear seat belts are injured than are passengers who do wear seat belts.

Answer : B




8) The cost of producing radios in Country Q is ten percent less than the cost of producing radios in Country Y. Even after transportation fees and tariff charges are added, it is still cheaper for a company to import radios from Country Q to Country Y than to produce radios in Country Y.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

A.Labor costs in Country Q are ten percent below those in Country Y.

B.Importing radios from Country Q to Country Y will eliminate ten percent of the manufacturing jobs in Country Y.

C.The tariff on a radio imported from Country Q to Country Y is less than ten percent of the cost of manufacturing the radio in Country Y.

D.The fee for transporting a radio from Country Q to Country Y is more than ten percent of the cost of manufacturing the radio in Country Q.

E.It takes ten percent less time to manufacture a radio in Country Q than it does in Country Y.

Answer : C




9) During the Second World War, about 375,000 civilians died in the United States and about 408,000 members of the United States armed forces died overseas. On the basis of those figures, it can be concluded that it was not much more dangerous to be overseas in the armed forces during the Second World War than it was to stay at home as a civilian.

Which of the following would reveal most clearly the absurdity of the conclusion drawn above?(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

A.Counting deaths among members of the armed forces who served in the United States in addition to deaths among members of the armed forces serving overseas

B.Expressing the difference between the numbers of deaths among civilians and members of the armed forces as a percentage of the total number of deaths

C.Separating deaths caused by accidents during service in the armed forces from deaths caused by combat injuries

D.Comparing death rates per thousand members of each group rather than comparing total numbers of deaths

E.Comparing deaths caused by accidents in the United States to deaths caused by combat in the armed forces.

Answer : D




10) One state adds a 7 percent sales tax to the price of most products purchased within its jurisdiction. This tax, therefore, if viewed as tax on income, has the reverse effect of the federal income tax: the lower the income, the higher the annual percentage rate at which the income is taxed.The conclusion above would be properly drawn if which of the following were assumed as a premise?(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

A.The amount of money citizens spend on products subject to the state tax tends to be equal across income levels.

B.The federal income tax favors citizens with high incomes, whereas the state sales tax favors citizens with low incomes.

C.Citizens with low annual incomes can afford to pay a relatively higher percentage of their incomes in state sales tax, since their federal income tax is relatively low.

D.The lower a state's sales tax, the more it will tend to redistribute income from the more affluent citizens to the rest of society.

E.Citizens who fail to earn federally taxable income are also exempt from the state sales tax.

Answer : A




11) The average age of chief executive officers (CEO's) in a large sample of companies is 57. The average age of CEO's in those same companies 20 years ago was approximately eight years younger. On the basis of those data, it can be concluded that CEO's in general tend to be older now.

Which of the following casts the most doubt on the conclusion drawn above?(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

A.The dates when the CEO's assumed their current positions have not been specified.

B.No information is given concerning the average number of years that CEO's remain in office.

C.The information is based only on companies that have been operating for at least 20 years.

D.Only approximate information is given concerning the average age of the CEO's 20 years ago.

E.Information concerning the exact number of companies in the sample has not been given.

Answer : C




12) Surveys show that every year only 10 percent of cigarette smokers switch brands. Yet the manufacturers have been spending an amount equal to 10 percent of their gross receipts on cigarette promotion in magazines. It follows from these figures that inducing cigarette smokers to switch brands did not pay, and that cigarette companies would have been no worse off economically if they had dropped their advertising.

Of the following, the best criticism of the conclusion that inducing cigarette smokers to switch brands did not pay is that the conclusion is based on.(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

A.computing advertising costs as a percentage of gross receipts, not of overall costs

B.past patterns of smoking and may not carry over to the future

C.the assumption that each smoker is loyal to a single brand of cigarettes at any one time

D.the assumption that each manufacturer produces only one brand of cigarettes

E.figures for the cigarette industry as a whole and may not hold for a particular company

Answer : E




13) Toughened hiring standards have not been the primary cause of the present staffing shortage in public schools. The shortage of teachers is primarily caused by the fact that in recent years teachers have not experienced any improvements in working conditions and their salaries have not kept pace with salaries in other professions.

Which of the following, if true, would most support the claims above?(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

A.Many teachers already in the profession would not have been hired under the new hiring standards.

B.Today more teachers are entering the profession with a higher educational level than in the past.

C.Some teachers have cited higher standards for hiring as a reason for the current staffing shortage.

D.Many teachers have cited low pay and lack of professional freedom as reasons for their leaving the profession.

E.Many prospective teachers have cited the new hiring standards as a reason for not entering the profession.

Answer : C




14) A proposed ordinance requires the installation in new homes of sprinklers automatically triggered by the presence of a fire. However, a home builder argued that because more than ninety percent of residential fires are extinguished by a household member, residential sprinklers would only marginally decrease property damage caused by residential fires.(GMAT Critical Reasoning)

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the home builder's argument?

A.Most individuals have no formal training in how to extinguish fires.

B.Since new homes are only a tiny percentage of available housing in the city, the new ordinance would be extremely narrow in scope.

C.The installation of smoke detectors in new residences costs significantly less than the installation of sprinklers.

D.In the city where the ordinance was proposed, the average time required by the fire department to respond to a fire was less than the national average.

E.The largest proportion of property damage that results from residential fires is caused by fires that start when no household member is present.

Answer : B

Questions 1-2 are based on the following.




In the past, teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries were predominantly men; these occupations slipped in pay and status when they became largely occupied by women. Therefore, if women become the majority in currently male-dominated professions like accounting, law, and medicine, the income and prestige of these professions will also drop.







The argument above is based on

another argument that contains circular reasoning

an attempt to refute a generalization by means of an exceptional case

an analogy between the past and the future

an appeal to popular beliefs and values

an attack on the character of the opposition.

Answer : C







Which of the following, if true, would most likely be part of the evidence used to refute the conclusion above?

Accountants, lawyers, and physicians attained their current relatively high levels of income and prestige at about the same time that the pay and status of teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries slipped.

When large numbers of men join a female-dominated occupation, such as airline flight attendant, the status and pay of the occupation tend to increase.

The demand for teachers and secretaries has increased significantly in recent years, while the demand for bank tellers has remained relatively stable.

If present trends in the awarding of law degrees to women continue, it will be at least two decades before the majority of lawyers are women.

The pay and status of female accountants, lawyers, and physicians today are governed by significantly different economic and sociological forces than were the pay and status of female teachers, bank tellers, and secretaries in the past.

Answer : E







An electric-power company gained greater profits and provided electricity to consumers at lower rates per unit of electricity by building larger-capacity more efficient plants and by stimulating greater use of electricity within its area. To continue these financial trends, the company planned to replace an old plant by a plant with triple the capacity of its largest plant.

The company's plan as described above assumed each of the following EXCEPT:

Demand for electricity within the company's area of service would increase in the future.

Expenses would not rise beyond the level that could be compensated for by efficiency or volume of operation, or both.

The planned plant would be sufficiently reliable in service to contribute a net financial benefit to the company as a whole.

Safety measures to be instituted for the new plant would be the same as those for the plant it would replace.

The tripling of capacity would not result in insuperable technological obstacles to efficiency.

Answer : D







Of the countries that were the world's twenty largest exporters in 1953, four had the same share of total world exports in 1984 as in 1953. Theses countries can therefore serve as models for those countries that wish to keep their share of the global export trade stable over the years.

Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the suitability of those four countries as models in the sense described?

Many countries wish to increase their share of world export trade, not just keep it stable.

Many countries are less concerned with exports alone than with he balance between exports and imports.

With respect to the mix of products each exports, the four countries are very different from each other.

Of the four countries, two had a much larger, and two had a much smaller, share of total world exports in 1970 than in 1984.

The exports of the four countries range from 15 percent to 75 percent of the total national output.

Answer : D







Questions 5-6are based on the following

Meteorologists say that if only they could design an accurate mathematical model of the atmosphere with all its complexities, they could forecast the weather with real precision. But this is an idle boast, immune to any evaluation, for any inadequate weather forecast would obviously be blamed on imperfections in the model.













Which of the following, if true, could best be used as a basis for arguing against the author's position that the meteorologists' claim cannot be evaluated?

Certain unusual configurations of data can serve as the basis for precise weather forecasts even though the exact causal mechanisms are not understood.

Most significant gains in the accuracy of the relevant mathematical models are accompanied by clear gains in the precision of weather forecasts.

Mathematical models of the meteorological aftermath of such catastrophic events as volcanic eruptions are beginning to be constructed.

Modern weather forecasts for as much as a full day ahead are broadly correct about 80 percent of the time.

Meteorologists readily concede that the accurate mathematical model they are talking about is not now in their power to construct.

Answer : B







Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the meteorologists' boast, aside from the doubt expressed in the passage above?

The amount of energy that the Earth receives from the Sun is monitored closely and is known not to be constant.

Volcanic eruptions, the combustion of fossil fuels, and several other processes that also cannot be quantified with any accuracy are known to have a significant and continuing impact on the constitution of the atmosphere.

As current models of the atmosphere are improved, even small increments in complexity will mean large increases in the number of computers required for the representation of the models.

Frequent and accurate data about the atmosphere collected at a large number of points both on and above the ground are a prerequisite for the construction of a good model of the atmosphere.

With existing models of the atmosphere, large scale weather patterns can be predicted with greater accuracy than can relatively local weather patterns.

Answer : B







Questions 7-8 are based on the following

In the United States, the Postal Service has a monopoly on first-class mail, but much of what is sent first class could be transmitted electronically. Electronic transmittal operators argue that if the Postal Service were to offer electronic transmission, it would have an unfair advantage, since its electronic transmission service could be subsidized from the profits of the monopoly.







Which of the following, if each is true, would allay the electronic transmittal operators' fears of unfair competition?

If the Postal Service were to offer electronic transmission, it could not make a profit on first-class mail.

If the Postal Service were to offer electronic transmission, it would have a monopoly on that kind of service.

Much of the material that is now sent by first-class mail could be delivered much faster by special package couriers, but is not sent that way because of cost.

There is no economy of scale in electronic transmission-that is, the cost per transaction does not go down as more pieces of information are transmitted.

Electronic transmission will never be cost-effective for material not sent by first-class mail such as newspapers and bulk mail.

Answer : A







Which of the following questions can be answered on the basis of the information in the passage above?

Is the Postal Service as efficient as privately owned electric transmission services?

If private operators were allowed to operate first-class mail services, would they choose to do so?

Do the electronic transmittal operators believe that the Postal Service makes a profit on first-class mail?

Is the Postal Service prohibited from offering electronic transmission services ?

Is the Postal Service expected to have a monopoly on electronic transmission?

Answer : C







Lists of hospitals have been compiled showing which hospitals have patient death rates exceeding the national average. The data have been adjusted to allow for differences in the ages of patients.

Each of the following, if true, provides a good logical ground for hospitals to object to interpreting rank on these lists as one of the indices of the quality of hospital care EXCEPT:

Rank order might indicate insignificant differences, rather than large differences, in numbers of patient deaths.

Hospitals that keep patients longer are likely to have higher death rates than those that discharge patients earlier but do not record deaths of patients at home after discharge.

Patients who are very old on admission to a hospital are less likely than younger patients to survive the same types of illnesses or surgical procedures.

Some hospitals serve a larger proportion of low-income patients, who tend to be more seriously ill when admitted to a hospital.

For-profit hospitals sometimes do not provide intensive-care units and other expensive services for very sick patients but refer or transfer such patients to other hospitals.

Answer : C







Teresa: Manned spaceflight does not have a future, since it cannot compete economically with other means of accomplishing the objectives of spaceflight.

Edward: No mode of human transportation has a better record of reliability: two accidents in twenty-five years. Thus manned spaceflight definitely has a positive future.













Which of the following is the best logical evaluation of Edward's argument as a response to Teresa's argument?

It cites evidence that, if true, tends to disprove the evidence cited by Teresa in drawing her conclusion.

It indicates a logical gap in the support that Teresa offers for her conclusion.

It raises a consideration that outweighs the argument Teresa makes.

It does not meet Teresa's point because it assumes that there is no serious impediment to transporting people into space, but this was the issue raised by Teresa.

It fails to respond to Teresa's argument because it does not address the fundamental issue of whether space activities should have priority over other claims on the national budget.

Answer : D







Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.

Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers' hypothesis?

The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.

Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.

Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.

No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

Answer : A







The following proposal to amend the bylaws of an organization was circulated to its members for comment.

When more than one nominee is to be named for an office, prospective nominees must consent to nomination and before giving such consent must be told who the other nominees will be.

Which of the following comments concerning the logic of the proposal is accurate if it cannot be known who the actual nominees are until prospective nominees have given their consent to be nominated?

The proposal would make it possible for each of several nominees for an office to be aware of who all of the other nominees are.

The proposal would widen the choice available to those choosing among the nominees.

If there are several prospective nominees, the proposal would deny the last nominee equal treatment with the first.

The proposal would enable a prospective nominee to withdraw from competition with a specific person without making that withdrawal known.

If there is more than one prospective nominee, the proposal would make it impossible for anyone to become a nominee.

Answer : E







Which of the following best completes the passage below?

In a survey of job applicants, two-fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest.

However, the survey may underestimate the proportion of job applicants who are dishonest, because

some dishonest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest

some generally honest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest

some people who claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest

some people who claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been answering honestly

some people who are not job applicants are probably at least a little dishonest

Answer : A







Which of the following, if true, most serinously weakens the conclusion that cigarette companies could have dropped advertising without suffering economically?

Cigarette advertisements provide a major proportion of total advertising revenue for numerous magazines.

Cigarette promotion serves to attract first-time smokers to replace those people who have stopped smoking.

There exists no research conclusively demon-strating that increases in cigarette advertising are related to increases in smoking.

Advertising is so firmly established as a major business activity of cigarette manufacturers that they would be unlikely to drop it.

Brand loyalty is typically not very strong among those who smoke inexpensive cigarettes.

Answer : B







Questions 15-16 are based on the following.

The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana.













Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage?

Insurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Hawaii will significantly lengthen the average Louisianian's life.

The governor of Louisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate.

The longevity ascribed to Hawaii's current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors.

Thirty percent of all Louisianians can expect to live longer than 77 years.

Most of the Hawaiian Islands have levels of air pollution well below the national average for the United States.

Answer : C







Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in the passage?

As population density increases in Hawaii, life expectancy figures for that state are likely to be revised downward

Environmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Hawaii and less numerous in Louisiana

Twenty-five percent of all Louisianians who move to Hawaii live longer than 77 years.

Over the last decade, average life expectancy has risen at a higher rate for Louisianians than for Hawaiians.

Studies show that the average life expectancy for Hawaiians who move permanently to Louisiana is roughly equal to that of Hawaiians who remain in Hawaii.

Answer : B







Insurance Company X is considering issuing a new policy to cover services required by elderly people who suffer from diseases that afflict the elderly. Premiums for the policy must be low enough to attract customers. Therefore, Company X is concerned that the income from the policies would not be sufficient to pay for the claims that would be made.

Which of the following strategies would be most likely to minimize Company X's losses on the policies?

Attracting middle-aged customers unlikely to submit claims for benefits for many years

Insuring only those individuals who did not suffer any serious diseases as children

Including a greater number of services in the policy than are included in other policies of lower cost

Insuring only those individuals who were rejected by other companies for similar policies

Insuring only those individuals who are wealthy enough to pay for the medical services

Answer : A







A program instituted in a particular state allows parents to prepay their children's future college tuition at current rates. The program then pays the tuition annually for the child at any of the state's public colleges in which the child enrolls. Parents should participate in the program as a means of decreasing the cost for their children's college education.

Which of the following, if true, is the most appropriate reason for parents not to participate in the program?

The parents are unsure about which pubic college in the state the child will attend.

The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest-bearing account today will be greater than the total cost of tuition for any of the pubic colleges when the child enrolls.

The annual cost of tuition at the state's pubic colleges is expected to increase at a faster rate than the annual increase in the cost of living

Some of the state's public colleges are contemplating large increases in tuition next year.

The prepayment plan would not cover the cost of room and board at any of the state's public colleges.

Answer : B







Company Alpha buys free-travel coupons from people who are awarded the coupons by Bravo Airlines for flying frequently on Bravo airplanes. The coupons are sold to people who pay less for the coupons than they would pay by purchasing tickets from Bravo. This marketing of coupons results in lost revenue for Bravo.

To discourage the buying and selling of free-travel coupons, it would be best for Bravo Airlines to restrict the

number of coupons that a person can be awarded in a particular year

use of the coupons to those who were awarded the coupons and members of their immediate families

days that the coupons can be used to Monday through Friday

amount of time that the coupons can be used after they are issued

number of routes on which travelers can use the coupons

Answer : B







The ice on the front windshield of the car had formed when moisture condensed during the night. The ice melted quickly after the car was warmed up the next morning because the defrosting vent, which blows only on the front windshield, was turned on full force.













Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the validity of the explanation for the speed with which the ice melted?

The side windows had no ice condensation on them.

Even though no attempt was made to defrost the back window, the ice there melted at the same rate as did the ice on the front windshield.

The speed at which ice on a window melts increases as the temperature of the air blown on the window increases.

The warm air from the defrosting vent for the front windshield cools rapidly as it dissipates throughout the rest of the car.

The defrosting vent operates efficiently even when the heater, which blows warm air toward the feet or faces of the driver and passengers, is on.

Answer : B










Throughout the 1950's, there were increases in the numbers of dead birds found in agricultural areas after pesticide sprayings. Pesticide manufacturers claimed that the publicity given to bird deaths stimulated volunteers to look for dead birds, and that the increase in numbers reported was attributable to the increase in the number of people looking.

Which of the following statements, if true, would help to refute the claim of the pesticide manufacturers?

The publicity given to bird deaths was largely regional and never reached national proportions.

Pesticide sprayings were timed to coincide with various phases of the life cycles of the insects they destroyed.

No provision was made to ensure that a dead bird would not be reported by more than one observer.

Initial increases in bird deaths had been noticed by agricultural workers long before any publicity had been given to the matter.

Dead birds of the same species as those found in agricultural areas had been found along coastal areas where no farming took place.

Answer : D










Which of the following best completes the passage below?

The computer industry's estimate that it loses millions of dollars when users illegally copy programs without paying for them is greatly exaggerated. Most of the illegal copying is done by people with no serious interest in the programs. Thus, the loss to the industry is much smaller than estimated because

many users who illegally copy programs never find any use for them

most of the illegally copied programs would not be purchased even if purchasing them were the only way to obtain them

even if the computer industry received all the revenue it claims to be losing, it would still be experiencing financial difficulties

the total market value of all illegal copies is low in comparison to the total revenue of the computer industry

the number of programs that are frequently copied illegally is low in comparison to the number of programs available for sale

Answer : B







This year the New Hampshire Division of Company X, set a new record for annual sales by that division. This record is especially surprising since the New Hampshire Division has the smallest potential market and the lowest sales of any of Company X's divisions.

Which of the following identifies a flaw in the logical coherence of the statement above?

If overall sales for Company X were sharply reduced, the New Hampshire Division's new sales record is irrelevant to the company's prosperity.

Since the division is competing against its own record, the comparison of its sales record with that of other divisions is irrelevant.

If this is the first year that the New Hampshire Division has been last in sales among Company X's divisions, the new record is not surprising at all.

If overall sales for Company X were greater than usual, it is not surprising that the New Hampshire Division was last in sales.

Since the New Hampshire Division has the smallest potential market, it is not surprising that it had the lowest sales.

Answer : B







Statement of a United States copper mining company: Import quotas should be imposed on the less expensive copper mined outside the country to maintain the price of copper in this country; otherwise, our companies will not be able to stay in business. Response of a United States copper wire manufacturer: United States wire and cable manufacturers purchase about 70 percent of the copper mined in the United States. If the copper prices we pay are not at the international level, our sales will drop, and then the demand for United States copper will go down.

If the factual information presented by both companies is accurate, the best assessment of the logical relationship between the two arguments is that the wire manufacturer's argument

is self-serving and irrelevant to the proposal of the mining company

is circular, presupposing what it seeks to prove about the proposal of the mining company

shows that the proposal of the mining company would have a negative effect on the mining company's own business

fails to give a reason why the proposal of the mining company should not be put into effect to alleviate the concern of the mining company for staying in business

establishes that even the mining company's business will prosper if the mining company's proposal is rejected

Answer : C







Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are often observed to be preceded by X, suggests that X, not Y, may be the cause of Z.

Which of the following further observations would best support the new report's suggestion?

In cases where X occurs but Y does not, X is usually followed by Z.

In cases where X occurs, followed by Y, Y is usually followed by Z.

In cases where Y occurs but X does not, Y is usually followed by Z.

In cases where Y occurs but Z does not, Y is usually preceded by X.

In cases where Z occurs, it is usually preceded by X and Y.

Answer : A







Mr. Primm: If hospitals were private enterprises, dependent on profits for their survival, there would be no teaching hospitals, because of the intrinsically high cost of running such hospitals. 

Ms. Nakai: I disagree. The medical challenges provided by teaching hospitals attract the very best physicians. This, in turn, enables those hospitals to concentrate on nonroutine cases.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen Ms. Nakai's attempt to refute Mr. Primm's claim?

Doctors at teaching hospitals command high salaries.

Sophisticated, nonroutine medical care commands a high price.

Existing teaching hospitals derive some revenue from public subsidies.

The patient mortality rate at teaching hospitals is high.

The modern trend among physicians is to become highly specialized.

Answer : B



















A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County found that, of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents. This indicates that, by wearing seat belts, drivers and front-seat passengers can greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident.

The conclusion above is not properly drawn unless which of the following is true?

Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.

Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car.

More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured.

More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.

Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve any serious injury.

Answer : A







Six months or so after getting a video recorder, many early buyers apparently lost interest in obtaining videos to watch on it. The trade of businesses selling and renting videos is still buoyant, because the number of homes with video recorders is still growing. But clearly, once the market for video recorders is saturated, businesses distributing videos face hard times.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion above?

The market for video recorders would not be considered saturated until there was one in 80 percent of homes.

Among the items handled by video distributors are many films specifically produced as video features.

Few of the early buyers of video recorders raised any complaints about performance aspects of the new product.

The early buyers of a novel product are always people who are quick to acquire novelties, but also often as quick to tire of them.

In a shrinking market, competition always intensifies and marginal businesses fail.

Answer : D







Advertiser: The revenue that newspapers and magazines earn by publishing advertisements allows publishers to keep the pricesper copy of their publications much lower than would otherwise be possible. Therefore, consumers benefit economically from advertising.

Consumer: But who pays for the advertising that pays for low-priced newspapers and magazines?

We consumers do, because advertisers pass along advertising costs to us through the higher prices they charge for their products.

Which of the following best describes how the consumer counters the advertiser's argument?

By alleging something that, if true, would weaken the plausibility of the advertiser's conclusion

By questioning the truth of the purportedly factual statement on which the advertiser's conclusion is based

By offering an interpretation of the advertiser's opening statement that, if accurate, shows that there is an implicit contradiction in it

By pointing out that the advertiser's point of view is biased

By arguing that the advertiser too narrowly restricts the discussion to the effects of advertising that are economic

Answer : A







Mr. Lawson: We should adopt a national family policy that includes legislation requiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government-sponsored day care. Such laws would decrease the stress levels of employees who have responsibility for small children. Thus, such laws would lead to happier, better-adjusted families.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion above?

An employee's high stress level can be a cause of unhappiness and poor adjustment for his or her family.

People who have responsibility for small children and who work outside the home have higher stress levels than those who do not.

The goal of a national family policy is to lower the stress levels of parents.

Any national family policy that is adopted would include legislation requiring employers to provide paid parental leave and establishing government-sponsored day care.

Most children who have been cared for in daycare centers are happy and well adjusted.

Answer : A







Lark Manufacturing Company initiated a voluntary Quality Circles program for machine operators. Independent surveys of employee attitudes indicated that the machine operators participating in the program were less satisfied with their work situations after two years of the program's existence than they were at the program's start. Obviously, any workers who participate in a Quality Circles program will, as a result, become less satisfied with their jobs.













Each of the following, if true, would weaken the conclusion drawn above EXCETP:

The second survey occurred during a period of recession when rumors of cutbacks and layoffs at Lark Manufacturing were plentiful .

The surveys also showed that those Lark machine operators who neither participated in Quality Circles nor knew anyone who did so reported the same degree of lessened satisfaction with their work situations as did the Lark machine operators who participated in Quality Circles.

While participating in Quality Circles at Lark Manufacturing, machine operators exhibited two of the primary indicators of improved job satisfaction: increased productivity and decreased absenteeism.

Several workers at Lark Manufacturing who had participated in Quality Circles while employed at other companies reported that, while participating in Quality Circles in their previous companies, their work satisfaction had increased.

The machine operators who participated in Quality Circles reported that, when the program started, they felt that participation might improve their work situations.

Answer : E







Questions 12-13 are based on the following.

Blood banks will shortly start to screen all donors for NANB hepatitis. Although the new screening tests are estimated to disqualify up to 5 percent of all prospective blood donors, they will still miss two-thirds of donors carrying NANB hepatitis. Therefore, about 10 percent of actual donors will still supply NANB-contaminated blood.







The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases, carry other infections for which reliable screening tests are routinely performed.

Donors carrying NANB hepatitis do not, in a large percentage of cases, develop the disease themselves at any point.

The estimate of the number of donors who would be disqualified by tests for NANB hepatitis is an underestimate.

The incidence of NANB hepatitis is lower among the potential blood donors than it is in the population at large.

The donors who will still supply NANB-contaminated blood will donate blood at the average frequency for all donors.

Answer : A







Which of the following inferences about the conse-quences of instituting the new tests is best supported by the passage above?

The incidence of new cases of NANB hepatitis is likely to go up by 10 percent.

Donations made by patients specifically for their own use are likely to become less frequent.

The demand for blood from blood banks is likely to fluctuate more strongly.

The blood supplies available from blood banks are likely to go down.

The number of prospective first-time donors is likely to go up by 5 percent.

Answer : D







Child's World, a chain of toy stores, has relied on a "supermarket concept" of computerized inventory control and customer self-service to eliminate the category of sales clerks from its force of employees. It now plans to employ the same concept in selling children's clothes. The plan of Child's World assumes that

supermarkets will not also be selling children's clothes in the same manner

personal service by sales personnel is not required for selling children's clothes successfully

the same kind of computers will be used in inventory control for both clothes and toys at Child's World

a self-service plan cannot be employed without computerized inventory control

sales clerks are the only employees of Child's World who could be assigned tasks related to inventory control

Answer : B







Continuous indoor fluorescent light benefits the health of hamsters with inherited heart disease. A group of them exposed to continuous fluorescent light survived twenty-five percent longer than a similar group exposed instead to equal periods of indoor fluorescent light and of darkness.

The method of the research described above is most likely to be applicable in addressing which of the following questions?

Can industrial workers who need to see their work do so better by sunlight or by fluorescent light?

Can hospital lighting be improved to promote the recovery of patients?

How do deep-sea fish survive in total darkness?

What are the inherited illnesses to which hamsters are subject?

Are there plants that require specific periods of darkness in order to bloom?

Answer : B







Millions of identical copies of a plant can be produced using new tissue-culture and cloning techniques.

If plant propagation by such methods in laboratories proves economical, each of the following, if true, represents a benefit of the new techniques to farmers EXCEPT:













The techniques allow the development of superior strains to take place more rapidly, requiring fewer generations of plants grown to maturity.

It is less difficult to care for plants that will grow at rates that do not vary widely.

Plant diseases and pests, once they take hold, spread more rapidly among genetically uniform plants than among those with genetic variations.

Mechanical harvesting of crops is less difficult if plants are more uniform in size.

Special genetic traits can more easily be introduced into plant strains with the use of the new techniques.

Answer : C







Which of the following best completes the passage below? Sales campaigns aimed at the faltering personal computer market have strongly emphasized ease of use, called user-friendliness. This emphasis is oddly premature and irrelevant in the eyes of most potential buyers, who are trying to address the logically prior issue of whether

user-friendliness also implies that owners can service their own computers

personal computers cost more the more user-friendly they are

currently available models are user-friendly enough to suit them

the people promoting personal computers use them in their own homes

they have enough sensible uses for a personal computer to justify the expense of buying one

Answer : E







A weapons-smuggling incident recently took place in country Y. We all know that Y is a closed society. So Y's government must have known about the weapons.

Which of the following is an assumption that would make the conclusion above logically correct?

If a government knows about a particular weapons-smuggling incident, it must have intended to use the weapons for its own purposes.

If a government claims that it knew nothing about a particular weapons-smuggling incident, it must have known everything about it.

If a government does not permit weapons to enter a country, it is a closed society.

If a country is a closed society, its government has a large contingent of armed guards patrolling its borders.

If a country is a closed society, its government has knowledge about everything that occurs in the country.

Answer : E







Banning cigarette advertisements in the mass media will not reduce the number of young people who smoke. They know that cigarettes exist and they know how to get them. They do not need the advertisements to supply that information.

The above argument would be most weakened if which of the following were true?

Seeing or hearing an advertisement for a product tends to increase people's desire for that product.

Banning cigarette advertisements in the mass media will cause an increase in advertisements in places where cigarettes are sold.

Advertisements in the mass media have been an exceedingly large part of the expenditures of the tobacco companies.

Those who oppose cigarette use have advertised against it in the mass media ever since cigarettes were found to be harmful.

Older people tend to be less influenced by mass-media advertisements than younger people tend to be.

Answer : A







People tend to estimate the likelihood of an event's occurrence according to its salience; that is, according to how strongly and how often it comes to their attention.

By placement and headlines, newspapers emphasize stories about local crime over stories about crime elsewhere and about many other major events.

It can be concluded on the basis of the statements above that, if they are true, which of the following is most probably also true?

The language used in newspaper headlines about local crime is inflammatory and fails to respect the rights of suspects.

The coverage of international events in newspapers is neglected in favor of the coverage of local events.

Readers of local news in newspapers tend to overestimate the amount of crime in their own localities relative to the amount of crime in other places.

None of the events concerning other people that are reported in newspapers is so salient in people's minds as their own personal experiences.

The press is the news medium that focuses people's attention most strongly on local crimes.

Answer : C

Questions 1-2 are based on the following.




Contrary to the charges made by some of its opponents, the provisions of the new deficit-reduction law for indiscriminate cuts in the federal budget are justified. Opponents should remember that the New Deal pulled this country out of great economic troubles even though some of its programs were later found to be unconstitutional.













1. The author's method of attacking the charges of certain opponents of the new deficit-reduction law is to

attack the character of the opponents rather than their claim

imply an analogy between the law and some New Deal programs

point out that the opponents' claims imply a dilemma

show that the opponents' reasoning leads to an absurd conclusion

show that the New Deal also called for indiscriminate cuts in the federal budget

Answer : B




2. The opponents could effectively defend their position against the author's strategy by pointing out that

A. the expertise of those opposing the law is outstanding

B. the lack of justification for the new law does not imply that those who drew it up were either inept or immoral

C. the practical application of the new law will not entail indiscriminate budget cuts

D. economic troubles present at the time of the New Deal were equal in severity to those that have led to the present law

E. the fact that certain flawed programs or laws have improved the economy does not prove that every such program can do so

Answer : E







3. In Millington, a city of 50,000 people, Mercedes Pedrosa, a realtor, calculated that a family with Millington's median family income, $28,000 a year, could afford to buy Millington's median-priced $77,000 house. This calculation was based on an 11.2 percent mortgage interest rate and on the realtor's assumption that a family could only afford to pay up to 25 percent of its income for housing.







Which of the following corrections of a figure appearing in the passage above, if it were the only correction that needed to be made, would yield a new calculation showing that even incomes below the median family income would enable families in Millington to afford Millington's median-priced house?

A. Millington's total population was 45,000 people.

B. Millington's median annual family income was $27,000

C. Millington's median-priced house cost $80,000

D. The rate at which people in Millington had to pay mortgage interest was only 10 percent.

E. Families in Millington could only afford to pay up to 22 percent of their annual income for housing

Answer : D







4. Psychological research indicates that college hockey and football players are more quickly moved to hostility and aggression than are college athletes in noncontact sports such as swimming. But the researchers' conclusion-that contact sports encourage and teach participants to be hostile and aggressive-is untenable. The football and hockey players were probably more hostile and aggressive to start with than the swimmers.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn by the psychological researchers?

A. The football and hockey players became more hostile and aggressive during the season and remained so during the off-season, whereas there was no increase in aggressiveness among the swimmers.

B. The football and hockey players, but not the swimmers, were aware at the start of the experiment that they were being tested for aggressiveness.

C. The same psychological research indicated that the football and hockey players had a great respect for cooperation and team play, whereas the swimmers were most concerned with excelling as individual competitors.

D. The research studies were designed to include no college athletes who participated in both contact and noncontact sports.

E. Throughout the United States, more incidents of fan violence occur at baseball games than occur at hockey or football games.

Answer : A







5. Ross: The profitability of Company X, restored to private ownership five years ago, is clear evidence that businesses will always fare better under private than under public ownership. Julia: Wrong. A close look at the records shows that X has been profitable since the appointment of a first-class manager, which happened while X was still in the pubic sector.

Which of the following best describes the weak point in Ross's claim on which Julia's response focuses?

A. The evidence Ross cites comes from only a single observed case, that of Company X.

B. The profitability of Company X might be only temporary.

C. Ross's statement leaves open the possibility that the cause he cites came after the effect he attributes to it.

D. No mention is made of companies that are partly government owned and partly privately owned.

E. No exact figures are given for the current profits of Company X.

Answer : C







6. Which of the following best completes the passage below?

At large amusement parks, live shows are used very deliberately to influence crowd movements. Lunchtime performances relieve the pressure on a park's restaurants. Evening performances have a rather different purpose: to encourage visitors to stay for supper. Behind this surface divergence in immediate purpose there is the unified underlying goal of

keeping the lines at the various rides short by drawing off part of the crowd

enhancing revenue by attracting people who come only for the live shows and then leave the park

avoiding as far as possible traffic jams caused by visitors entering or leaving the park

encouraging as many people as possible to come to the park in order to eat at the restaurants

utilizing the restaurants at optimal levels for as much of the day as possible

Answer : E







Questions 7-8 are based on the following.

Partly because of bad weather, but also partly because some major pepper growers have switched to high-priced cocoa, world production of pepper has been running well below worldwide sales for three years. Pepper is consequently in relatively short supply. The price of pepper has soared in response: it now equals that of cocoa.







7. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

A. Pepper is a profitable crop only if it is grown on a large scale.

B. World consumption of pepper has been unusually high for three years.

C. World production of pepper will return to previous levels once normal weather returns

D. Surplus stocks of pepper have been reduced in the past three years.

E. The profits that the growers of pepper have made in the past three years have been unprecedented.

Answer : D







8. Some observers have concluded that the rise in the price of pepper means that the switch by some growers from pepper to cocoa left those growers no better off than if none of them had switched; this conclusion, however, is unwarranted because it can be inferred to be likely that

A. those growers could not have foreseen how high the price of pepper would go

B. the initial cost involved in switching from pepper to cocoa is substantial

C. supplies of pepper would not be as low as they are if those growers had not switched crops

D. cocoa crops are as susceptible to being reduced by bad weather as are pepper crops

E. as more growers turn to growing cocoa, cocoa supplies will increase and the price of cocoa will fall precipitously.

Answer : C







9. Technological education is worsening. People between eighteen and twenty-four, who are just emerging from their formal education, are more likely to be technologically illiterate than somewhat older adults. And yet, issues for public referenda will increasingly involve aspects of technology.

Which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn from the statements above?

If all young people are to make informed decisions on public referenda, many of them must learn more about technology.

Thorough studies of technological issues and innovations should be made a required part of the public and private school curriculum.

It should be suggested that prospective voters attend applied science courses in order to acquire a minimal competency in technical matters.

If young people are not to be overly influenced by famous technocrats, they must increase their knowledge of pure science.

On public referenda issues, young people tend to confuse real or probable technologies with impossible ideals.

Answer : A







10. In a political system with only two major parties, the entrance of a third-party candidate into an election race damages the chances of only one of the two major candidates. The third-party candidate always attracts some of the voters who might otherwise have voted for one of the two major candidates, but not voters who support the other candidate. Since a third-party candidacy affects the two major candidates unequally, for reasons neither of them has any control over, the practice is unfair and should not be allowed.

If the factual information in the passage above is true, which of the following can be most reliably inferred from it?

A. If the political platform of the third party is a compromise position between that of the two major parties, the third party will draw its voters equally from the two major parties.

B. If, before the emergence of a third party, voters were divided equally between the two major parties, neither of the major parties is likely to capture much more than one-half of the vote.

C. A third-party candidate will not capture the votes of new voters who have never voted for candidates of either of the two major parties.

D. The political stance of a third party will be more radical than that of either of the two major parties.

E. The founders of a third party are likely to be a coalition consisting of former leaders of the two major parties.

Answer : B







11. Companies considering new cost-cutting manufacturing processes often compare the projected results of making the investment against the alternative of not making the investment with costs, selling prices, and share of market remaining constant.

Which of the following, assuming that each is a realistic possibility, constitutes the most serious disadvantage for companies of using the method above for evaluating the financial benefit of new manufacturing processes?

A. The costs of materials required by the new process might not be known with certainty.

B. In several years interest rates might go down, reducing the interest costs of borrowing money to pay for the investment.

C. Some cost-cutting processes might require such expensive investments that there would be no net gain for many years,until the investment was paid for by savings in the manufacturing process.

D. Competitors that do invest in a new process might reduce their selling prices and thus take market share away from companies that do not.

E. The period of year chosen for averaging out the cost of the investment might be somewhat longer or shorter, thus affecting the result.

Answer : D







12. The last year for which figures exist, there were only some 50,000 adoptions.













Which of the following statements, if true, most strengthens the author's claim that there are far fewer children available for adoption than there are people who want to adopt?

The number of couples waiting to adopt has increased significantly in the last decade.

The number of adoptions in the current year is greater than the number of adoptions in any preceding year.

The number of adoptions in a year is approximately equal to the number of children available for adoption in that period.

People who seek to adopt children often go through a long process of interviews and investigation by adoption agencies.

People who seek to adopt children generally make very good parents.

Answer : C







Questions 13-14 are based on the following

Archaeologists seeking the location of a legendary siege and destruction of a city are excavating in several possible places, including a middle and a lower layer of a large mound. The bottom of the middle layer contains some pieces of pottery of type 3, known to be from a later period than the time of the destruction of the city, but the lower layer does not.







13. Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the evidence above?

A. The lower layer contains the remains of the city where the siege took place.

B. The legend confuses stories from two different historical periods.

C. The middle layer does not represent the period of the siege.

D. The siege lasted for a long time before the city was destroyed.

E. The pottery of type 3 was imported to the city by traders.

Answer : C







14. The force of the evidence cited above is most seriously weakened if which of the following is true?

A. Gerbils, small animals long native to the area, dig large burrows into which objects can fall when the burrows collapse.

B. Pottery of types 1 and 2, found in the lower level, was used in the cities from which, according to the legend, the besieging forces came.

C. Several pieces of stone from a lower-layer wall have been found incorporated into the remains of a building in the middle layer.

D. Both the middle and the lower layer show evidence of large-scale destruction of habitations by fire.

E. Bronze axheads of a type used at the time of the siege were found in the lower level of excavation.

Answer : A







15. After the national speed limit of 55 miles per hour was imposed in 1974, the number of deaths per mile driven on a highway fell abruptly as a result. Since then, however, the average speed of vehicles on highways has risen, but the number of deaths per mile driven on a highway has continued to fall.

Which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn from the statements above?

A. The speed limit alone is probably not responsible for the continued reduction in highway deaths in the years after 1974.

B. People have been driving less since 1974.

C. Driver-education courses have been more effective since 1974 in teaching drivers to drive safely.

D. In recent years highway patrols have been less effective in catching drivers who speed.

E. The change in the speed limit cannot be responsible for the abrupt decline in highway deaths in 1974.

Answer : A







16. Neighboring landholders: Air pollution from the giant aluminum refinery that has been built next to our land is killing our plants. Company spokesperson: The refinery is not to blame, since our study shows that the damage is due to insects and fungi.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion drawn by the company spokesperson?

A. The study did not measure the quantity of pollutants emitted into the surrounding air by the aluminum refinery.

B. The neighboring landholders have made no change in the way they take care of their plants.

C. Air pollution from the refinery has changed the chemical balance in the plants' environment, allowing the harmful insects and fungi to thrive.

D. Pollutants that are invisible and odorless are emitted into the surrounding air by the refinery.

E. The various species of insects and fungi mentioned in the study have been occasionally found in the locality during the past hundred years.

Answer : B







17. Sales taxes tend to be regressive, affecting poor people more severely than wealthy people. When all purchases of consumer goods are taxed at a fixed percentage of the purchase price, poor people pay a larger proportion of their income in sales taxes than wealthy people do.













It can be correctly inferred on the basis of the statements above that which of the following is true?

A. Poor people constitute a larger proportion of the taxpaying population than wealthy people do.

B. Poor people spend a larger proportion of their income on purchases of consumer goods than wealthy people do.

C. Wealthy people pay, on average, a larger amount of sales taxes than poor people do.

D. The total amount spent by all poor people on purchases of consumer goods exceeds the total amount spent by all wealthy people on consumer goods.

E. The average purchase price of consumer goods bought by wealthy people is higher than that of consumer goods bought by poor people.

Answer : B







18. Reviewing historical data, medical researchers in California found that counties with the largest number of television sets per capita have had the lowest incidence of a serious brain disease, mosquito-borne encephalitis. The researchers have concluded that people in these counties stay indoors more and thus avoid exposure to the disease.

The researchers' conclusion would be most strengthened if which of the following were true?

A. Programs designed to control the size of disease-bearing mosquito populations have not affected the incidence of mosquito- borne encephalitis.

B. The occupations of county residents affect their risk of exposure to mosquito-borne encephalitis more than does television-watching.

C. The incidence of mosquito-borne encephalitis in counties with the largest number of television sets per capita is likely to decrease even further.

D. The more time people in a county spend outdoors, the greater their awareness of the dangers of mosquito-borne encephalitis.

E. The more television sets there are per capita in a county, the more time the average county resident spends watching television

Answer : E







19. The city's public transportation system should be removed from the jurisdiction of the municipal government, which finds it politically impossible either to raise fares or to institute cost-saving reductions in service. If public transportation were handled by a private firm, profits would be vigorously pursued, thereby eliminating the necessity for covering operating costs with government funds.

The statements above best support the conclusion that

A. the private firms that would handle public transportation would have experience in the transportation industry

B. political considerations would not prevent private firms from ensuring that revenues cover operating costs

C. private firms would receive government funding if it were needed to cover operating costs

D. the public would approve the cost-cutting actions taken by the private firm

E. the municipal government would not be resigned to accumulating merely enough income to cover costs

Answer : B







20. To entice customers away from competitors, Red Label supermarkets have begun offering discounts on home appliances to customers who spend $50 or more on any shopping trip to Red Label. Red Label executives claim that the discount program has been a huge success, since cash register receipts of $50 or more are up thirty percent since the beginning of the program.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the claim of the Red Label executives?

A. Most people who switched to Red Label after the program began spend more than $50 each time they shop at Red Label.

B. Most people whose average grocery bill is less than $50 would not be persuaded to spend more by any discount program.

C. Most people who received discounts on home appliances through Red Label's program will shop at Red Label after the program ends.

D. Since the beginning of the discount program, most of the people who spend $50 or more at Red Label are people who have never before shopped there and whose average grocery bill has always been higher than $50.

E. Almost all of the people who have begun spending $50 or more at Red Label since the discount program began are longtime customers who have increased the average amount of their shopping bills by making fewer trips.

Answer : E




In Los Angeles, a political candidate who buys saturation radio advertising will get maximum name recognition.

The statement above logically conveys which of the following?

Radio advertising is the most important factor in political campaigns in Los Angeles.

Maximum name recognition in Los Angeles will help a candidate to win a higher percentage of votes cast in the city.

Saturation radio advertising reaches every demographically distinct sector of the voting population of Los Angeles.

For maximum name recognition a candidate need not spend on media channels other than radio advertising.

A candidate's record of achievement in the Los Angeles area will do little to affect his or her name recognition there.

Answer : D




The rate of violent crime in this state is up 30 percent from last year. The fault lies entirely in our court system: Recently our judges' sentences have been so lenient that criminals can now do almost anything without fear of a long prison term.

The argument above would be weakened if it were true that

85 percent of the other states in the nation have lower crime rates than does this state.

white collar crime in this state has also increased by over 25 percent in the last year.

35 percent of the police in this state have been laid off in the last year due to budget cuts.

polls show that 65 percent of the population in this state oppose capital punishment.

the state has hired 25 new judges in the last year to compensate for deaths and retirements.

Answer : C

The increase in the number of newspaper articles exposed as fabrications serves to bolster the contention that publishers are more interested in boosting circulation than in printing the truth. Even minor publications have staffs to check such obvious fraud.

The argument above assumes that

newspaper stories exposed as fabrications are a recent phenomenon.

everything a newspaper prints must be factually verifiable.

fact checking is more comprehensive for minor publications than for major ones.

only recently have newspapers admitted to publishing intentionally fraudulent stories.

the publishers of newspapers are the people who decide what to print in their newspapers.

Answer : E

Time and again it has been shown that students who attend colleges with low faculty/student ratios get the most well-rounded education. As a result, when my children are ready to attend college, I'll be sure they attend a school with a very small student population.

Which of the following, if true, identifies the greatest flaw in the reasoning above?

A low faculty/student ratio is the effect of a well-rounded education, not its source.

Intelligence should be considered the result of childhood environment, not advanced education.

A very small student population does not by itself, ensure a low faculty/student ratio.

Parental desires and preferences rarely determines a child's choice of a college or university.

Students must take advantage of the low faculty/student ratio by intentionally choosing small classes.

Answer : C

All German philosphers, except for Marx, are idealists.

From which of the following can the statement above be most properly inferred?

Except for Marx, if someone is an idealist philosopher, then he or she is German.

Marx is the only non-German philosopher who is an idealist.

If a German is an idealist, then he or she is a philosopher, as long as he or she is not Marx.

Marx is not an idealist German philosopher.

Aside from the philosopher Marx, if someone is a German, then he or she is an idealist.

Answer : E

Bill earns more commission than does Sandra. But since Andrew earns more commission than does Lisa, it follows that Bill earns more commission than does Lisa.

Any of the following, if introduced into the argument as an additional premise, makes the argument above logically correct EXCEPT:

Andrew earns more commission than Bill

Sandra earns more commission than Lisa

Sandra earns more commission than Andrew

Sandra and Andrew earn the same amount of commission

Bill and Andrew earn the same amount of commission

Answer : A













During the SARS days, about 23,500 doctors who had treated SARS sufferers died and about 23,670 doctors who had not engaged in treatment for SARS sufferers died. On the basis of those figures, it can be concluded that it was not much more dangerous toparticipate in SARS treatment during the SARS day than it was not to participate in SARS treatment.

Which of the following would reveal most clearly the absurdity of the conclusion drawn above?

Counting deaths among doctors who had participated in SARS treatment in addition to deaths among doctors who had not participated in SARS treatment

Expressing the difference between the numbers of deaths among doctors who had treated SARS sufferers and doctors who had not treated SARS suffers as a percentage of the total number of deaths

Separating deaths caused by accidents during the treatment to SARS suffers from deaths caused by infect of SARS suffers.

Comparing death rates per thousand members of each group rather than comparing total numbers of deaths

Comparing deaths caused by accidents in the United States to deaths caused by infect in treating SARS suffers.

Answer : D

In 2003 an airline in United State lost more than half, on average, of the foreign passengers they had previously served each year. Researchers have alleged that this extreme drop resulted from a rise in price of tickets for international lines from $60 to $90 per 1,000 miles.

Which of the following, if feasible, offers the best prospects for alleviating the problem of the drop in passengers as the researchers assessed it?

Cooperating with other airlines to provide more international lines.

Allowing foreign passengers to pay the same as the previous international line

Reemphasizing the goals and mission of the airline as serving both domestic passengers and foreign passengers

Increasing the financial resources of the airline by raising the ticket price for domestic passengers

Offering superior VIP service for foreign passengers.

Answer : B

Our work proves to be very successful. In the past three years, each of our five clients has experienced the fastest growth of sales in their history. Therefore, if your company wants to increase sales, do not hesitate to call Sigma & Max, since we are the solution.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the validity of the argument by the speaker above?

Most of the consultants at Sigma & Max hold MBA degrees.

Even without the help of Sigma & Max, the five clients of Sigma & Max will achieve the same growth rate in sale.

Sigma & Max is one of the five leading management consulting companies.

Sigma & Max uses an updated accounting approach to help companies to cut cost.

All of the five clients of Sigma & Max are doing business in financial industry.

Answer : B

A life insurance company allows people to prepay their endowment insurance at current rates. The policyholder then pays the premium every year. People should participate in the program as a means of decreasing the cost for their living after retirement.

Which of the following, if true, is the most appropriate reason for people NOT to participate in the program?

Peoples are unsure about which insurance company they will choose after retirement.

The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest-bearing account today will be greater than the total cost of insurance when they retire.

The annual cost of premium is expected to increase at a faster rate than the annual increase in the cost of living.

Some of the insurance companies are contemplating large increases in premium next year.

The prepayment plan would not cover the cost of hospitalization.

Answer : B

Questions 11-12 are based on the following passage.

If highways were restricted to cars and only those truck with capacity of less than 8 tons, most the truck traffic would be forced to run outside highway. Such a reduction in the amount of truck traffic would reduce the risk of collision in highway.













The conclusion draw in the first sentence depends on which of the following assumptions?

The roads outside highway would be as convenient as highway for most drivers of truck.

Most roads outside highways are not ready to handle truck traffic.

Most trucks that are currently running in highway have a capacity of more than 8 tons.

Cars are at greater risk of becoming involved in collisions than are trucks.

A reduction in the risk of collision would eventually lead to increases in car traffic.

Answer : C

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn in the second sentence?

Cars with a capacity of more than 8 tons are already excluded outside highways.

Highways are experiencing overcrowded traffic primarily because of sharp increases in car traffic.

Many drivers of trucks would rather buy truck with a capacity of less than 8 tons than be excluded from highways.

The number of collisions that occur near highways has decreased in recent years.

Trucks that have a capacity of more than 8 tons cause a disproportionately large number of collisions in highways.

Answer : E

The price of purchasing a car in Country Q is 120 percent less than the price of purchasing a car in Country Y. Even after transportation fees and tariff charges are added, it is still cheaper for a buyer to import car from Country Q to Country Y than to buy car in Country Y.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?

Gasoline prices in Country Q are 120 percent below those in Country Y.

Importing cars from Country Q to Country Y will eliminate 120 percent of the sales of cars in Country Y.

The tariff on a car imported from Country Q to Country Y is less than 120 percent of the price of a car in Country Y.

The fee for transporting a car from Country Q to Country Y is more than 120 percent of the price of a car in Country Q.

It takes 120 percent less time to transport a car in Country Q than it does in Country Y.

Answer : C

In 1992, 5 percent of every dollar paid in tax went to support the unemployed citizens. In 1998, 8 percent of every dollar paid in tax went to such funds, although that unemployment rate has decreased in 1998 than in 1992.

Each of the following, if true, could explain the simultaneous increase in percent of every dollar paid in tax to support the unemployed citizens and decrease in the number of unemployment rate EXCEPT:

On average, each unemployed citizen received more money in 1998 than 1992.

On average, people paid less tax in 1998 ‍than in 1992.

The individuals had paid more tax than did enterprises during this period.

Income before tax has significantly decreased since 1992.

The number of tax evaders rose sharply between 1992 and ‍1998.

Answer : C

Something must be done to stop spam. In early days, people seldom received unsolicited email advertisement; but now that numerous bulk email software and email address finders are developed to collect email address all around the world. Advertisers use email addresses to market their products and even sell such email lists to other advertisers. As a result, almost everyone ever get junk email, and sometime several and even tens of annoying emails a day. So, relevant anti-spam regulations should be framed to stop unsolicited advertising.

The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

Background that the argument depends on and conclusion that can be drawn from the argument.

Part of evidence that the argument includes, and inference that can be drawn from this passage.

Pre-evidence that the argument depends on and part of evidence that supports the conclusion.

Background that argument depends on and part of evidence that supports the conclusion.

Pre-evidence that argument includes and a method that helps to supports that conclusion.

Answer : B

Stock analyst: "We believe Company A's stock will appreciate at 35% a year for the next 5 to 7 years. Company A just became the leader in its industry and we expect its sales to grow at 8% a year."













Commentator: "But how can the stock's price be expected to grow more quickly than the company's underlying sales?"

Which of the following facts would best support the stock analyst?

The company's expenses will be declining over the next 5 to 10 years.

The company just won a patent on a new product.

Company A's stock is currently overvalued by a significant amount.

The 5 to 7 year time frame is too long for anyone to accurately forecast.

Company A's industry peer group is expected to experience stock appreciation rates of 30% over the same time horizon.

Answer : A

Acme brand aspirin claims to be the best headache relief available on the market today. To prove this claim, Acme called 10 people and asked them their thoughts on headache relief products. All 10 of them stated that they unequivocally use Acme brandaspirin on a regular basis and that they believe it to be the best headache relief available on the market today.

Which of the following would most weaken this argument?

Acme brand aspirin is highly addictive.

The 10 people called were married to the company's top 10 executives, and they were coached on what to say.

Most people choose to suffer silently through their headaches and take no medicines whatsoever.

This survey was conducted by an independent company.

The 10 people were selected at random.

Answer : B

My neighbor's dogs bark and howl every time their owner lets them outside. My CPA told me that dogs tend to bark and howl when they see birds resting in the top branches of their favorite trees. I personally believe they bark and howl because they enjoy disrupting my meditations.

Which of the following can be inferred from the preceding passage?

The dogs must be abused by their owners.

The dogs' owners do not care how they are viewed by their neighbors.

There are many pedestrians who walk by this neighbor's house, and the dogs are starving for attention.

The dogs enjoy being outside.

The dogs will bark and howl at 3 a.m. if they are outside at that time.

Answer : D

Most citizens are very conscientious about observing a law when they can see the reason behind it. For instance, there has been very little need to actively enforce the recently-implemented law that increased the penalty for motorists caught leaving a gas station without paying for gas they had pumped into their vehicles. This is because citizens are very conscientious of the high cost of gasoline and they know that stealing gas will only further increase the price of gasoline for everyone.

Which of the following statements would the author of this passage be most likely to believe?

The increased penalty alone is a significant motivation for most citizens to obey the law.

There are still too many inconsiderate citizens in the local community.

High gasoline prices can be brought down if everyone does his or her part and pays for the gasoline they use at the pumps.

Society should make an effort to teach citizens the reasons for its laws. People would be more likely to speed on a stretch of deserted highway than to not pay for gasoline.

Answer : D

Nearly one in three subscribers to Financial Forecaster is a millionaire, and over half are in top management.

Shouldn't you subscribe to Financial Forecaster now?

A reader who is neither a millionaire nor in top management would be most likely to act in accordance with the advertisement's suggestion if he or she drew which of the following questionable conclusions invited by the advertisement?

Among finance-related periodicals. Financial Forecaster provides the most detailed financial information.

Top managers cannot do their jobs properly without reading Financial Forecaster.

The advertisement is placed where those who will be likely to read it are millionaires.

The subscribers mentioned were helped to become millionaires or join top management by reading Financial Forecaster.

Only those who will in fact become millionaires, or at least top managers, will read the advertisement.

Answer : D