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শনিবার, ১৮ জুন, ২০১১

Article এর ব্যব্হার-০১

Use of Articles
Indefinite articles: a/an
Countable singular nouns:
1.     “A” is used before consonant sounds and “An” is used before vowel sounds. Both of them are used before countable singular nouns. 
Example:
I need a pen to sign here.
She imported a new car. 
An animal drove him out of the Sundarbans.

Remember: “O” and “U” sometimes produce consonant sounds and take “A” instead of “An”. Example- A one way ticket, a one sided argument, a university, a unique design, a united force, a European coin, a U-tern etc.
Similarly, “H” sometimes remains mute and take “An” instead of “A”. Example - An hour, an honorable person, a/an hotel etc.
Also remember:
An MA, an MP, an “h”, an “f”, an “l”, an “n”, an “r”, an x-ray, etc.

2.     When countable singular noun is preceded by a possessive pronoun (my/our/your/his/her/their/its) or a possessive noun (Rafiq’s/Sima’s) no article is used.
He lived in my house.
Shihab bought Rafiq’s car.
Similarly, if a countable singular noun is preceded by singular demonstratives (this/that) no article is used.
You need this pen to draw this picture.
Her teacher asked her to buy that book.

3.     No article is used before a countable plural noun.
She is imported new cars. Never: she imported anew cars.

First mention and afterwards:
4.     When a countable singular noun is first mentioned, a/an is used before it. But “the” is used before it whenever it is mentioned in the following sentences in the same piece of writing:
He has a cat and a dog.
The cat’s name is Mini and the dogs name is Bhola.
5.     When a countable plural noun is first mentioned, no article is used before it. But “the” is used before it whenever it is mentioned in the following sentences in the same piece of writing:
Children play games. But the games often create quarrels among them.

A/An in certain expressions:
6.     A/an in phrases: a little, a few, many a, half a dozen, fraction of a second/minute, a pair of glasses/shoes, quarter of an hour, what a, etc.
·        But the is used before ‘little’ when the whole of the little amount is meant:
The little money he has is not enough for his treatment.
·        Similarly, “the” is used before ‘few’ when of the small number is meant:
The few books I have are all written in English.
·        ‘The’ is also used before other expressions of this group when they are made definite by post modifiers:
The pair of shoes he has bought is made in Italy.

Uncountable nouns:     
7.     Normally articles are not used before uncountable nouns. Here is a small list of the frequently used uncountable nouns:
Accommodation, behavior, baggage, luggage, paper, permission, fun, advice, knowledge, grass, equipment, work, travel, poetry, information, news, furniture, bread, traffic, scenery, luck, money, water, wool, energy, chess, coffee, tea, health etc. 
But “the” is used before some of them when they are made definite by post modifiers. Example-
     The information you gave was wrong.
     He talks about the fun that we had last year.
    
Definite Article:The
8.     “The” is used before the name of a thing which is a unique (only one) in nature. Such a thing is already known to all.
Ø “The” is used before the name of planets and other similar natural unique. Example- the sun, the moon, the mars, the sky, the cosmos, the Equator etc.
Ø “The” is used before the weather because it is also a natural unique and known to all. Example- It is better to start conversation with reference to the weather.

9.     “The” is used before the names of seas, oceans, gulfs and poles. Example- the Mediterranean sea, the read sea, the black sea, the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Persian Gulf, the South Pole, the North Pole, etc.
10.                         “The” is used before the names of deserts. Example- the Sahara, the Gobi etc.
11.                        “The” is used before the names of rivers. Example- the Padma, the Jamuna, the Ganges, the Nile, the Rine etc.
12.                        “The” is used before the name of ranges of mountains. Example- the Himalayas, the Alps etc.
13.                        “The” is used before the names of groups of islands. Example- the West Indies, the Andamans etc.
 14.                         “The” is used before the names of Hotels, Restaurants and Newspapers. Example- The Pan Pacific Sonargaon Hotel, the Halvatia Restaurant, the Labamba Restaurant, the Daily Prothom Alo etc.

Musical Instruments:
15.                         “The” is used before the name of musical instruments. Example- the piano, the violin, the aktara, the flute, etc.
But “the” is often dropped before jazz, pop, saxophone, trumpet, etc. Example-
He is an artist of jazz. Tapon was on trumpet in yesterday’s concert.

TV& RADIO:
16.       “The” is used before television when it refers to the set (machine). Example-
       The old television has been sold.   There is a layer of dust on the TV.
But when the programs of TV are referred ‘the’ is not used. Example- TV is a good source of entertainment. I don’t watch TV regularly.
17.      “The” is used before (the) radio (medium). Example-          I don’t find time to listen to the radio. (The radio programs)
But “the” is dropped before radio when it is refers to art form or profession. Example- She sings in radio.
“A’’ is used when radio refers to the apparatus. Example- He always carries a radio.  
18.          “The” is used before cinemas (halls), theatres (halls), ships. Example-
Cinemas: the Madhumita, the Balaka, the Odeon, etc.
Theatres: the Mahila Samity, the National theatrers, the Globel theatres, etc.
Ships: the Titanic, the Sonar Bangla, etc.
But “the” is dropped before ‘cinema’ or ‘theatre’ when it refers to art form or profession. Example-
There are many differences between cinema and theatre.
Working in cinema is easier than working in theatre.
Names of countries and areas: 
19.          “The” is used before the name of country or an area which has an adjective or adjectives and a noun in it: (adj+n). Example-
The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, the United Kingdom/the UK, the United states of America/the USA, the United Arab Emirate/the UAE, etc.
But ‘the’ is dropped when the short form or alternative names of those countries are used. Example- Bangladesh, Britain, America or United States etc.
‘The’ is also dropped if the name of a country or area is preceded by any of these adjectives: North, South, East, West, Upper, Lower, Great and New. Example - North America, South America, Great Britain, New Zealand etc.
But remember: The South Pole, the North Pole.
·                  “The” is not used before the name of continents. Example- Asia, Europe, Africa, etc.
·                  However ‘the’ is used before the name of the following countries though they have only the nouns as names:
The Netherlands, the Philippines, the Maldives, the Lebanon, the Congo, the Argentine.
20.          ‘The’ is used before the nouns in apposition.  Example- Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is a cosmopolitan city. Dr. Ahmed, the Principal, is a great man.
21.          But if a proper noun is in apposition ‘the’ is not used before it. Example- the Principal, Dr. Ahmed, is a gentleman.
22.          “The” is used before adverbs and adjectives. Example-
a)     The then Prime Minister misled the nation.
b)    The above examples are taken from Shakespeare.
c)     The down train is late.
23.               “The” is used before ordinals in title. Example- Queen Elizabeth the second is still alive.
24.               “The” is used to emphasize. Example- He is the big shot in the twon.
25.               “The” is used to express enthusiastic approval (usually with “that”). Example-  That’s the word, that’s the tune.
26.               ‘The’ is used before adjectives when they function as nouns to mean the whole class or group. Example - The poor, the blind, the rich, the old etc.
27.               ‘The’ is used before countable singular nouns to mean the whole species. Example - the cow, the whale etc.
But remember ‘the’ is not used before ‘man’ & ‘woman’. Example - Man is mortal.
However, “the” is used before man and woman when they are made definite by post modifiers. Example- Rakib is the man who did it. We know the woman who played well.
28.      “The” is used before the plural name of a family. Example- The sheridans. The Mondals. The Sarkers.
29.      “The” is used before comparatives. Example- the more the merrier, the sooner the better.
30.      “The” is used before superlatives. Example- He is the best boy in the class.
But “the” is not used before “most” when it is used to mean majority or almost all of something or some people not as superlative. Example- Here, most newspapers use erroneous English. Most of the people of our country are poor.

Nature, society, space:
31.            No article is used before nature, society, space(vacuum):
Nature is always not kind. Man live in society.  Everybody dreams of flying in space.